Offshore grid infrastructure: understanding cumulative impacts & exploring multi-functionality and environmental monitoring

By 2030, some 20.000 km of new subsea cables are needed in the seas of Europe with an estimated investment cost of €50 billion (source: ENTSO-E). Permitting authorities are already being confronted with the need to understand impacts of offshore energy infrastructure. In view of the planned offshore expansion, the question of how to measure and deal with cumulative impacts is daunting. The risk of delayed or refused permits, in the absence of sufficient information, is real.